Medicinal Cannabis Production

Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years in Asian and Middle Eastern countries. The medicinal use of cannabis in Europe and North America has declined during the 20th Century largely due to the lack of standardized preparations (1). The tide has turned. In the near future Britain should become the first country to license a cannabis-based pharmaceutical (2).The principal active ingredients responsible for the efficacy of cannabis are phytocannabinoids, a family of over sixty 21-carbon terpenophenolic compounds that are unique to cannabis. Sativex®, the first UK cannabis-based medicine contains two from this family - Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). THC is the principal psychoactive ingredient in recreational cannabis. CBD is not psychoactive but both cannabinoids have profound medicinal properties.

Continue Reading

Marijuana Versus Nicotine? Are you Sirius?

By Jason King

SO JUST WHAT IS the difference between marijuana and tobacco? Unsurprisingly, but with an unexpected twist, the difference lies in the opposing actions of THC in marijuana versus nicotine in tobacco. To put it simply, nicotine has several effects that promote various cancers, but THC acts in ways that counter the cancer-causing chemicals in marijuana smoke. To put it another way, THC actually reduces the carcinogenic potential of the smoke.

As an example, recent lab research indicates that nicotine, the active and highly addictive ingredient in tobacco, activates an enzyme that converts certain chemicals in tobacco smoke into a cancer-promoting form. THC on the other hand, inhibits the enzyme necessary to activate the carcinogens found in ganga smoke.

Continue Reading

420 Document

This is all from a segment out of the 3rd Cannabible.

Cannabis is a greek word, of African descent. It means canna- canine - "Dog" and bis - "two". So it is the "Two Dog" plant.

In Mali, West Africa, there is a pot loving tribe called the Dogons. The Dogons were visited by Herodotus, a Greek traveller and chornicler, around 300 BCE. Herodotus came upon the tribe during their yearlong celebration of cannabis that occured every 50 years.

Continue Reading

Chemical Ecology of Cannabis

David W. Pate

Pate, D.W., 1994. Chemical ecology of Cannabis. Journal of the International Hemp Association 2: 29, 32-37.

The production of cannabinoids and their associated terpenes in Cannabis is subject to environmental influences as well as hereditary determinants. Their biosynthesis occurs in specialized glands populating the surface of all aerial structures of the plant. These compounds apparently serve as defensive agents in a variety of antidessication, antimicrobial, antifeedant and UV-B pigmentation roles. In addition, the more intense ambient UV-B of the tropics, in combination with the UV-B lability of cannabidiol, may have influenced the evolution of an alternative biogenetic route from cannabigerol to tetrahydrocannabinol in some varieties.

Continue Reading

Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System

Get the PDF Version of this Document Dustin Sulak, DO

Maine Integrative Healthcare

As you read this review of the scientific literature regarding the therapeutic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids, one thing will become quickly evident: cannabis has a profound influence on the human body. This one herb and its variety of therapeutic compounds seem to affect every aspect of our bodies and minds. How is this possible?

Continue Reading

Dopamine Effects

Study: Cannabis use does not increase dopamine release

By "Radical" Russ Belville on June 23, 2009

I have an acquaintence here in Portland who claims knowledge of "addictionology". When I have mentioned that marijuana use causes dependence in a few, not addiction, he's quick to correct me by saying that marijuana use causes the release of dopamine in the brain, just like any other addictive drug, and that is how we can consider marijuana to be physically addictive. I've always believed that correction to be faulty, but lacked the knowledge of brain functioning to offer a strong rebuttal.

Continue Reading

Marijuana - The First 12 Thousand Years

I. The Early Years
1. Cannabis in the Ancient World

Millions of years ago, humanoid creatures descended from the trees in Africa. These first men stood erect, their eyes peering into the beyond, their hands grasping rudimentary weapons and tools, ready to bend nature to their will.

The descendants of these first men wandered into almost every corner of the earth and evolved into four main racial groups: the Negroids, Australoids, Mongoloids, and Caucasoids. Each race, living under different climatic conditions and in virtual isolation from one another, developed special physical characteristics to enable them to survive in their particular part of the world. Along with these physical traits there emerged rudimentary cultures as distinct as the colors of their skins. Some communities relied primarily on hunting for survival, refining their skills and weapons through the ages to capture prey and eventually to conquer and enslave rival communities. Others subsequently discovered that the seeds and leaves of certain plants would appease hunger and sustain life. Once they became farmers, men gave up their spears and knives for plowshares and permanent settlements came into being.

The earliest civilizations sprouted along the banks of great rivers - the Hwang-Ho in China, the Indus in India, the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia (where biblical scholars have sought in vain for traces of the Garden of Eden), and the Nile in Egypt. The soil along these riverbanks was particularly suited for agriculture, being rich and deep and invigorated annually by new deposits of silt.

Whether they remained hunters or became farmers, the people who lived long before the written word was invented, discovered through trial and error the best materials for shaping, molding, bending, twisting, and sharpening objects into tools. In each civilization these discoveries were much the same; the only differences were the materials at hand.

Continue Reading